“Scientists are required to leave a detailed trace that shows how their facts produced or supported particular conclusions.

Such a trace typically involves multiple stages of analysis.

The researcher shows, for instance, how he or she moved from the context-specific empirical encounter (the “facts”) to a concept-dependent conclusion.

What scientists know, in other words, cannot be taken on faith: they have to show how they got to know what they know. This is hammered into the rules of the game; it is part of the prerequisites for publication.”

From this book.

Sometimes, in fields outside of science, it would pay to have a more scientific approach to understanding a phenomenon and deciding what best to do about it.

In the afternoon